Kenneth A. Perkins PhD
Professor of Psychiatry, Psychology, and Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh
Research Career Summary
Overview: Since 1986, I have been continuously funded by NIH as Principal Investigator on research focused largely on two broad “themes.” One emphasizes translational studies drawing on preclinical findings to examine acute effects of nicotine (and cigarette smoking) that may explain the persistence of tobacco dependence in humans, and the second is aimed at improving clinical treatments for smoking cessation. Several of these NIH-funded projects address both themes, as basic research findings are then often followed by evaluation of their implications for clinical treatment. These include the first programmatic lab-based research in humans, to our knowledge, on: 1) nicotine and energy balance, to partly determine why smoking lowers body weight, which may help maintain smoking in those with weight concerns; 2) chronic tolerance to nicotine (tolerance being a classic hallmark of abused drugs) and examination of associations of tolerance with dependence; 3) discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine, believed related to nicotine reinforcement; and 4) sex differences in reinforcing and rewarding effects of nicotine vs. non-nicotine stimuli of smoking. The initial key to all these projects was our development of a novel nasal spray method to administer measured doses of nicotine per se in rapid fashion, to mimic the speed of intake via cigarette smoking, but in isolation from all the other constituents in tobacco smoke. The first two decades of this effort resulted in my being listed among the most cited authors in tobacco and nicotine research (Byrne & Chapman, 2005, Tobacco Control, 14, 155-160), as well as the most productive faculty in clinical psychology (Stewart et al., 2007, Journal of Clinical Psychology, 63, 1209-1215). Today, another decade later, I am author or co-author of over 230 publications, most as first author, with a citation index (h) of 66 and over 13,000 total citations through 2017. More recent projects continue these themes, as one (translational) evaluates nicotine’s reinforcement enhancing effects in humans, and a second (clinical) involves developing and validating an efficient and innovative procedure for initial screening of novel medications for evidence of smoking cessation efficacy. A third project extends testing of nicotine discrimination (#2 above) to cigarette smoking, for the first time. In addition to this research productivity over the past 30 years, I have also contributed to the missions of the medical school and the Psychology department at the Univ of Pittsburgh by teaching and mentoring graduate students and medical students. These projects are summarized in chronological order below.
1. Nicotine and Energy Balance: This early project provided the first full characterization of nicotine acute influences on energy expenditure (“metabolic rate”) under various conditions (e.g. during rest or light activity, following food intake or other drug use). Notable was showing its enhancement during light physical activity, suggesting nicotine’s influence on energy expenditure in the natural environment, while smokers are “busy” with routine tasks, is greater than that observed while under standard resting laboratory conditions. Yet, our findings also suggested that this influence was insufficient to explain the difference in body weight due to smoking. We also assessed acute effects of nicotine on caloric intake, the other side of the energy balance equation, finding (contrary to common assumptions) that nicotine (and smoking) does not reduce eating behavior after a period of fasting but does enhance the satiating influence of recent food intake. This action would maintain satiety, or subjective “fullness,” longer after a meal (when smokers often enjoy smoking) and reduce between-meal snacking. The result could thereby lower caloric intake and help explain smokers’ lower body weight. We subsequently took this line of research in a clinical direction, with a goal of improving smoking cessation treatment. Dieting concurrent with trying to quit was shown ineffective by others, so we developed and tested an adjunct cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) tailored to reduce weight gain concerns, rather than weight gain itself, in women trying to quit. As hypothesized, this tailored CBT improved quit rates beyond that due to standard CBT, but a behavioral weight control adjunct (dieting) did not, consistent with other clinical and preclinical findings. We then tested this tailored CBT combined with bupropion (Zyban), finding greater quit rates at 6-month follow-up for this CBT vs. standard CBT among those receiving bupropion.
2. Chronic and Acute Tolerance to Nicotine: A hallmark of drug dependence is onset of tolerance to a drug’s effects (as noted in DSM-V), and little prior research had systematically examined chronic tolerance to nicotine in humans. This project established parameters of tolerance, including differences in responding to equal dosing between smokers and nonsmokers, the pattern across response domains, dose-response influences, and the time course of acute tolerance. Critically, our studies often obtained blood nicotine levels to correct responses for dispositional (pharmacokinetic) factors and clearly demonstrate functional (pharmacodynamic) tolerance. Results clearly supported chronic tolerance development with long-term smoking and suggested similar mechanisms responsible for both chronic and acute tolerance. Yet, our later lab studies questioned the close association of chronic tolerance with dependence, as tolerance was similar between dependent and nondependent smokers, only modestly declined long after cessation, and did not predict withdrawal or relapse after a quit attempt (although nicotine self-administration in the lab did predict both). Thus, tolerance may be important during onset of dependence, but tolerance no longer appears to index dependence after it is established; thus, its clinical utility as a criterion of dependence seems minimal.
3. Nicotine Discrimination: Drugs of abuse often have characteristic interoceptive stimulus effects, which may be related to their “subjective” (e.g. mood) effects and important in understanding the drug’s abuse liability and its mechanisms of action. Despite substantial preclinical research, no previous research had systematically examined nicotine discrimination in humans, probably owing to methodological limitations of existing dosing procedures. In this project, we established that humans could reliably discriminate nicotine’s interoceptive effects, that chronic tolerance to the effects did not appear to develop, and that discrimination behavior was influenced by training dose and nicotine pre-treatment. We then demonstrated that this behavior is centrally-mediated (the first such demonstration with any drugs in humans to our knowledge) and that the threshold dose for discriminating nicotine is very low in both smokers and nonsmokers. Other studies explored whether exposure to other drugs with nicotine could help explain their concurrent use, but neither alcohol nor caffeine altered nicotine’s discriminative, reinforcing, or subjective effects. Very recently, this line of research has examined nicotine discrimination via Spectrum research cigarettes varying in nicotine content.
4. Sex Differences in Nicotine Reinforcement: Little research prior to the 1990s examined sex differences in the acute effects of smoking behavior, and most researchers assumed either no differences or greater sensitivity to nicotine in women, given their greater preference for “light” brands. We conducted programmatic studies of sex differences in acute reinforcing and rewarding effects of nicotine and smoking, explicitly separating influences due to nicotine per se versus non-nicotine factors. Our research consistently found that women, relative to men, were less sensitive to manipulations of nicotine dose and more sensitive to non-nicotine stimuli from smoking. This difference was not seen for all effects (which would suggest dispositional differences) but primarily for self-administration or “rewarding” effects. Implications include the possibility that various sensory “substitutes” or other coping strategies may be of greater help, and nicotine replacement of less help, in women trying to quit smoking.
5. Screening Novel Medications for Smoking Cessation Efficacy: In the two general approaches to initial screening of compounds for evidence of cessation efficacy during the drug discovery process (e.g. FDA early Phase 2), acute lab studies of drug effects on symptoms generally lack validity while small clinical trials of quit success are valid but often impractical or under-powered. The high probability of negative results, unfortunately, in early testing of any novel drugs argues for a more efficient initial evaluation to inform whether or not to proceed to larger clinical trials. This project developed and validated a new procedure to optimally combine features of lab studies and small trials to take advantage of the experimental control and practicality of the former and clinical validity of the latter. Our innovative within-subject crossover design compares short-term quit attempts on active vs. placebo in a small sample of smokers already preparing to quit soon, those shown to be sensitive to a drug’s efficacy for cessation.
6. Reinforcement Enhancing effects of Nicotine: In our most recent project, we adapted procedures from preclinical research to clearly demonstrate, for the first time in humans, that nicotine enhances reinforcement from rewards unassociated with nicotine (or smoking). Small amounts of nicotine, including from non-smoked sources, may be sufficient for this effect, perhaps promoting lapse and relapse. Central to this effort was development and validation of a procedure to sensitively assess changes in the reinforcing value of a reward. Newer research examines these reinforcement enhancing effects due to nicotine via NRT. This research program was recently summarized in an overview (Perkins, Karelitz, & Boldry, 2017; see below).
For further details, see the links below.
- The Public URL for my collection of published work in MyBibliography
- GoogleScholar listing of my published work
Research and Professional Experience
Education and Training
1973-1976: Oberlin College, Oberlin OH, B.A. with High Honors in Psychology; Phi Beta Kappa
1977-1979: University of Iowa, Iowa City IA, M.A., Clinical Psychology
1979-1982: University of Iowa, Iowa City IA, Ph.D., Clinical Psychology
1983-1984: University of Mississippi Medical School, Jackson MS, APA-Approved Clinical Psychology Internship
1984-1986: University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, Post-doctoral Fellow, Cardiovascular Behavioral Medicine Research
1986–1992: Assistant Professor, Departments of Psychiatry, Epidemiology, & Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA
1992–1996: Associate Professor, Departments of Psychiatry, Epidemiology, & Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA
1996–present: Professor, Departments of Psychiatry (primary appointment), Epidemiology, & Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA
- 1976: Phi Beta Kappa
- 1976: Sigma XI
- 1977–82: Teaching-Research Fellowship, Graduate College of the University of Iowa
- 1989: Outstanding New Researcher, Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy
- 1993: Fellow, Society of Behavioral Medicine
- 1994: Fellow, American Psychological Association
- 2001–02: President, Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco (SRNT)
- 2017: Elected to Inaugural Fellows cohort for SRNT
IRG Committees, conference and editorial service
- 1990-92, 2010-present: Editorial Board, Health Psychology
- 1991-96, 2004-09: Editorial Board, Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology
- 1993: Program Chair, Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) annual meeting, San Francisco CA.
- 1993: Guest Editor, Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology issue on Smoking
- 1995: Program Chair, Inaugural meeting of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco (SRNT), San Diego CA.
- 1995–present: Editorial Board, Psychopharmacology
- 1999–present: Editorial Board, Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
- 1996–99: Member, NIDA Basic Behavioral Science Research IRG Grant Review Committee
- 2001–05: Member, Behavioral Regulation, Learning, and Ethology IRG (BRLE, or BBBP-1), NIH Grant Review Committee
- 2004–present: Assistant Editor, Addiction
- 2007-09: Section IV Co-Editor, NCI Monograph 20, Phenotypes and Endophenotypes: Foundations for Genetic Studies of Nicotine Use and Dependence (chapters 8 and 9).
- 2010: Co-author, Chapter 4 ("Nicotine addiction: past and present") in Surgeon General’s Report, How tobacco smoke causes disease: the biology and behavioral basis for smoking-attributable disease.
Recent Key Publications
Perkins, K.A., Karelitz, J.L., & Boldry, M.A. (2017) Nicotine acutely enhances reinforcement from non-drug rewards in humans. Frontiers in Psychiatry (Addictive Disorders section), 8: 65. PMID: 28507522. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2017.00065. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2017.00065. Open access link: http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyt.2017.00065/full
Perkins, K.A., Kunkle, N., & Karelitz, J.L. (2017) Preliminary test of cigarette nicotine discrimination threshold in non-dependent versus dependent smokers. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 175: 36-41. PMID: 28380366. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.01.033
Perkins, K.A., Karelitz, J.L., & Michael, V.C. (2017) Effects of nicotine versus placebo e-cigarette use on symptom relief during initial tobacco abstinence. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 25(4): 249-254. PMID: 28650184. DOI: 10.1037/pha0000134.
Perkins, K.A., Kunkle, N., & Karelitz, J.L. (2017) Threshold dose for behavioral discrimination of cigarette nicotine content in menthol vs. non-menthol smokers. Psychopharmacology, 234: 1255-1265. PMID: 28210778. DOI: 10.1007/s00213-017-4563-3
Perkins, K.A. (2014) Improving efficiency of initial tests for efficacy in smoking cessation drug discovery (editorial for themed Issue). Expert Opinion On Drug Discovery 9: 1259-1264. PMID: 25138487. ISSN: 1746-0441, DOI:10.1517/17460441.2014.951632
Perkins, K.A. & Lerman, C. (2014) An efficient early Phase 2 procedure to screen medications for efficacy in smoking cessation. Psychopharmacology, 231: 1-11. DOI: 10.1007/s00213-013-3364-6.
Perkins, K.A., & Karelitz, J.L. (2013) Reinforcement enhancing effects of nicotine via smoking. Psychopharmacology, 228: 479-486. DOI: 10.1007/s00213-013-3054-4.
Perkins, K.A. (2013) Procedures for conducting a Crossover Evaluation of Addiction Treatment Efficacy (CREATE) for novel medications in smoking cessation (copyrighted manual). Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh, 2013.
Perkins, K.A., Conklin, C.A., & Levine, M.D. (2008) Cognitive-behavioral therapy for smoking cessation: a practical guide to the most effective treatments (book for practitioners). New York: Routledge, 2008.
Select Other Publications
Perkins, K.A., & Karelitz, J.L. (2015) Sex differences in acute relief of abstinence-induced withdrawal and negative affect due to nicotine content in cigarettes. Nicotine and Tobacco Research 17: 443-448. PMID: 25762754. DOI: 10.1093/ntr/ntu150.
Perkins, K.A., Karelitz, J.L., & Michael, V.C. (2015) Reinforcement enhancing effects of acute nicotine via electronic cigarettes. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 153: 104-108. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.05.041
Perkins, K.A., Lerman, C., Karelitz, J.L., Jao, N.C., Chengappa, K.N.R., & Sparks, G.M. (2013) Sensitivity and specificity of a procedure for early human screening of novel smoking cessation medications. Addiction, 108: 1962-1968. DOI: 10.1111/add.12273. NIHMSID #513889.
Perkins, K.A., Karelitz, J.L., Jao, N.C., Gur, R.C., & Lerman, C. (2013) Effects of bupropion on cognitive performance during initial abstinence. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 133: 283-286. PMCID: PMC3786016. DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.05.003.
Perkins, K.A., Karelitz, J.L., & Jao, N.C. (2013) Optimal carbon monoxide criteria to confirm 24-hr smoking abstinence. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 15: 578-582. PMID: 22990219. DOI: 10.1093/ntr/nts205.
Perkins, K.A., & Karelitz, J.L. (2013) Influence of reinforcer magnitude and nicotine amount on smoking’s acute reinforcement enhancing effects. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 133: 167-171. DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.05.016. PMCID: PMC3786025.
Perkins, K.A., Karelitz, J.L., Jao, N.C., & Stratton, E. (2013) Possible reinforcement enhancing effects of bupropion during initial smoking abstinence. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 15: 1141-1145. PMID: 23100457. DOI: 10.1093/ntr/nts224.
Perkins, K.A. (2012) Subjective reactivity to smoking cues as a predictor of quitting success. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 14: 383-387 (commentary). PMID: 22140145. DOI: 10.1093/ntr/ntr229.
Perkins, K.A. (2011) Nicotine discrimination in humans. Chapter 15 in Glennon RA, Young R (eds), Drug Discrimination: Application to Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Studies. New York: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 463-481. PMID: 19184656, ISBN: 978-0-470-43352-2.
Perkins, K.A., & Lerman, C. (2011) Early human screening of medications to treat drug addiction: Novel paradigms and the relevance of pharmacogenetics. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 89: 460-463. PMID: 21270792, PMCID:PMC3188428; DOI:10.1038/clpt.2010.254.
Perkins, K.A., Karelitz, J.L., Conklin, C.A., Sayette, M.A., & Giedgowd, G.E. (2010) Acute negative affect relief from smoking depends on the affect measure and situation, but not on nicotine. Biological Psychiatry, 67: 707-714. PMID: 20132927
Perkins, K.A. (2010) Pharmacology and behavior: the case of tobacco dependence. In Suls J, Davidson K, Kaplan RM (eds), Handbook of Health Psychology. New York: Guilford Press, pp. 527-543.
Hatsukami, D.K., Perkins, K.A., LeSage, M.G., Ashley, D.L., Henningfield, J.E., Benowitz, N.L., Backinger, C., & Zeller, M. (2010) Nicotine reduction revisited: science and future directions. Tobacco Control 19: 436-445. PMID: 20876072 DOI: 10.1136/tc.7009.035584.
Perkins, K.A., Lerman, C. Fonte, C., Mercincavage, M., Stitzer, M.L., Chengappa, K.R.N., & Jain, A. (2010) Cross-validation of a new procedure for early screening of smoking cessation medications in humans. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 88: 109-114. PMID: 20485335 DOI: 10.1038/clpt.2010.65
Perkins, K.A. (2009) Sex differences in nicotine reinforcement and reward: influences on the persistence of tobacco smoking. In Bevins, R. & Caggiula, A.R. (eds) The Motivational Impact of Nicotine and its Role in Tobacco Use. New York: Springer-Verlag, pp. 143-169. PMID: 19013943
Perkins, K.A. (2009) Discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine in humans. In Henningfield JE, London E, & Pogun, S. (eds) Nicotine Psychopharmacology. New York: Springer-Verlag, pp. 369-400.
Perkins, K.A. (2009) Treatment of nicotine dependence in women. In Brady K., and Greenfield S. (eds), Women and Addiction: A Comprehensive Textbook, New York: Guilford Press, pp. 360-378.
Lerman, C., Perkins, K.A., & Gould, T. (2009) Nicotine dependence endophenotypes in chronic smokers. Chapter 9 in National Cancer Institute Tobacco Control Monograph No. 20, Phenotypes and Endophenotypes: Foundations for Genetic Studies of Nicotine use and Dependence. Bethesda, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute. NIH Publication No. 08-6366, pp. 403-484.
Perkins, K.A. (2009) Does smoking cue-induced craving tell us anything important about nicotine dependence? (invited commentary/review). Addiction 104: 1610-1616. PMID:19426293
Perkins, K.A., Ciccocioppo, M., Conklin, C., Milanak, M., Grottenthaler, A. & Sayette, M. (2008) Mood influences on acute smoking responses are independent of nicotine intake and dose expectancy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 117: 79-93. PMID: 18266487
Perkins, K.A., Lerman, C., Stitzer, M.L., Fonte, C.A., Briski, J.L., Scott, J.A., & Chengappa, K.N.R. (2008) Development of procedures for early screening of smoking cessation medications in humans. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 84: 216-221. PMID: 18388880
Perkins, K.A., & Scott, J. (2008) Sex differences in long-term smoking cessation rates due to nicotine patch. Nicotine and Tobacco Research 10: 1245-1251. PMID: 18629735
Perkins, K.A., Lerman, C., Coddington, S.B., Jetton, C., Karelitz, J.L., Scott, J., & Wilson, A.S. (2008) Initial nicotine sensitivity in humans as a function of impulsivity. Psychopharmacology 200: 529-544. PMID: 18604520
Lerman, C., LeSage, M.G., Perkins, K.A., O’Malley, S.S., Siegel, S.J., Benowitz, N.L., & Corrigall, W.A. (2007) Translational research in medication development for nicotine dependence. Nature Reviews: Drug Discovery 6: 746-762.
Perkins, K.A., Stitzer, M., & Lerman, C. (2006) Medication screening for smoking cessation: a proposal for new methodologies. Psychopharmacology 184: 628-636.
Perkins, K.A., Sayette, M., Conklin, C.A., & Caggiula, A.R. (2003) Placebo effects of tobacco smoking and other nicotine intake. Nicotine and Tobacco Research 5: 695-709.
Perkins, K.A., Broge, M., Gerlach, D., Sanders, M., Grobe, J.E., Cherry, C., & Wilson, A.S. (2002) Acute nicotine reinforcement, but not chronic tolerance, predicts withdrawal and relapse after quitting smoking. Health Psychology 21: 332-339.
Perkins, K.A. (2002) Chronic tolerance to nicotine in humans and its relationship to tobacco dependence. Nicotine and Tobacco Research 4: 405-422.
Perkins, K.A. (2001) Smoking cessation in women: special considerations. CNS Drugs 15: 391-411.
Perkins, K.A., Gerlach, D., Broge, M., Grobe, J.E., Sanders, M., Fonte, C., Vender, J., Cherry, C., & Wilson, A. (2001) Dissociation of nicotine tolerance from tobacco dependence in humans. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 296: 849-856.
Perkins, K.A., Fonte, C., Sanders, M., Meeker, J., & Wilson, A. (2001) Threshold doses for nicotine discrimination in smokers and nonsmokers. Psychopharmacology 155: 163-170.
Perkins, K.A., Marcus, M.D., Levine, M.D., D’Amico, D., Miller, A., Broge, M., Ashcom, J., & Shiffman, S. (2001) Cognitive-behavioral therapy to reduce weight concerns improves smoking cessation outcome in weight-concerned women. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 69: 604-613.
Perkins, K.A., Hickcox, M.E., & Grobe, J.E. (2000) Behavioral economics of smoking. In Bickel, W. & Vuchinich, R. (eds), Reframing health behavior change with behavioral economics. Mahwah NJ: Erlbaum, pp. 265-292.
Perkins, K.A., Levine, M., Marcus, M., Shiffman, S., D’Amico, D., Miller, A., Keins, A., Ashcom, J., & Broge, M. (2000) Tobacco withdrawal in women and menstrual cycle phase. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 68: 176-180.
Perkins, K.A. (1999) Baseline-dependency of nicotine effects: a review. Behavioural Pharmacology 10: 597-615.
Perkins, K.A., Sanders, M., Fonte, C., Wilson, A.S., White, W., Stiller, R., & McNamara, D. (1999) Effects of central and peripheral nicotinic blockade on human nicotine discrimination. Psychopharmacology 142: 158-164.
Perkins, K.A., Donny, E., & Caggiula, A.R. (1999) Sex differences in nicotine effects and self-administration: human and animal evidence. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 1: 301-315.
Perkins, K.A. (1997) Combined effects of nicotine and alcohol on subjective, behavioral, and physiological responses in humans. Addiction Biology 2: 255-267.
Perkins, K.A. (1996) Sex differences in nicotine versus non-nicotine reinforcement as determinants of tobacco smoking. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 4: 166-177.
Kaplan, R.M., Orleans, C.T., Perkins, K.A., & Pierce, J.P. (1995) Marshaling the evidence for greater regulation and control of tobacco products: a call for action. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 17: 3-14.
Perkins, K.A. (1995) Individual variability in response to nicotine. Behavior Genetics 25: 119-132.
Perkins, K.A. (1994) Issues in the prevention of weight gain after smoking cessation. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 16: 46-52.
Perkins, K.A., DiMarco, A., Grobe, J.E., Scierka, A.C., & Stiller, R.L. (1994) Nicotine discrimination in male and female smokers. Psychopharmacology 116: 407-413.
Perkins, K.A., Grobe, J.E., Fonte, C., Goettler, J.L., Caggiula, A.R., Reynolds, W.A., Stiller, R.L., Scierka, A., & Jacob, R.G. (1994) Chronic and acute tolerance to subjective, behavioral, and cardiovascular effects of nicotine in humans. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 270: 628-638.
Perkins, K.A. (1993) Weight gain following smoking cessation. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology61: 768-777. (Abstracted in Clinician's Research Digest, 1994, 12, p. 5)
Perkins, K.A., Grobe, J.E., Stiller, R.L., Fonte, C., & Goettler, J.E. (1992) Nasal spray nicotine replacement suppresses cigarette smoking desire and behavior. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 52: 627-634.
Perkins, K.A. (1992) Metabolic effects of cigarette smoking. Journal of Applied Physiology 72: 401-409.
Perkins, K.A., Epstein, L.H., Stiller, R.L., Fernstrom, M.H., Sexton, J.E., Jacob, R.G., & Solberg, R. (1991) Acute effects of nicotine on hunger and caloric intake in smokers and nonsmokers. Psychopharmacology103: 103-109.
Perkins, K.A., Epstein, L.H., & Pastor, S. (1990) Changes in energy balance following smoking cessation and resumption of smoking in women. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 58: 121-125.
Perkins, K.A., Epstein, L.H., Marks, B.L., Stiller, R.L., & Jacob, R.G. (1989) Effect of nicotine on energy expenditure during light physical activity. New England Journal of Medicine 320: 898-903.
Epstein, L.H., & Perkins, K.A. (1988) Smoking, stress, and coronary heart disease. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 56: 342-349.
Perkins, K.A. (1987) The shortage of cadaver donor organs for transplantation: can psychology help? American Psychologist 42: 921-930.
Perkins, K.A. (1986) Family history of coronary heart disease: Is it an independent risk factor? American Journal of Epidemiology 124: 182-194.
Perkins, K.A., Epstein, L.H., Jennings, J.R., & Stiller, R. (1986) The cardiovascular effects of nicotine during stress. Psychopharmacology 90: 373-378.
Perkins, K.A. (1985) The synergistic effect of smoking and serum cholesterol on coronary heart disease. Health Psychology, 4: 337-360.
NIH Grant Support
7/15/14 – 6/30/18 Principal Investigator, R01 DA035774, NIDA: “Reinforcement-Enhancing Effects of NRT”
4/1/16 – 3/31/21 Co-Investigator, R01 CA206058, NCI: “Behavioral activation for smoking cessation and the prevention of post-cessation weight gain”; PI: J. Audrain-McGovern, Univ of Pennsylvania
9/1/17 – 8/31/19 Co-Investigator, R21 DA045137, NIDA: “Cognitive remediation and transcranial direct current stimulation to aid smokers with schizophrenia”; PI: C. Conklin, Univ of Pittsburgh
Previously completed grants
8/15/13 - 7/31/17 Principal Investigator, R21 DA035968, NIDA: “Threshold Dose for Nicotine Discrimination in Cigarettes”
9/15/12 - 7/31/17 Co-Investigator, R01 DA033080, NIDA: “Behavioral and genetic mechanisms of smoking risk in Individuals with ADHD” PI: S. Kollins, PhD, Duke Univ
8/20/14 – 6/30/17 Co- Principal Investigator, UH3 TR000958, NCATS: “Medication Development of a Novel Therapeutic for Smoking Cessation” (subaward from Virginia Commonwealth Univ).
8/01/09 - 7/31/14 Principal Investigator, Project 3 of P50-CA-143187 (CIRNA center, U of Penn), NCI: “Validating Early Human Screening of Cessation Medications”
7/01/13 – 6/30/14 Co-Investigator, UH2 TR000958, NCATS: “Medication Development of a Novel Therapeutic for Smoking Cessation” PI: D. Brunzell, PhD, Virginia Commonwealth Univ.
7/15/11 - 4/30/13 Principal Investigator, R21 DA031218, NIDA: “Reinforcement-Enhancing Effects of Nicotine”
4/01/08 - 3/31/13 Co-Investigator, R01 DA023646, NIDA: “Self-report and behavioral reactivity to combined smoking cues” PI: C. Conklin, PhD, Univ Pittsburgh
9/15/09 - 8/31/12 Co-Investigator, R21 MH087928, NIMH: “Varenicline treatment for smoking cessation in patients with Bipolar disorder”, PI: R. Chengappa, MD
9/30/07 - 6/30/12 Co-Investigator, R01 DA021608, NIDA: “Addressing Postpartum Mood and Weight Concerns to Sustain Smoking Cessation”, PI: M.D. Levine, Ph.D.
9/15/09 - 8/31/11 Principal Investigator, R03 DA027449, NIDA: “Behavioral Genetics of Mood-Induced Smoking”
7/01/06 - 6/30/11 Co-Investigator, R01 DA020742, NIDA: “Understanding Emerging Patterns of Non-Daily Smoking: Field and Lab Assessments”, PI: S. Shiffman, Ph.D.
9/12/06 - 7/31/10 Principal Investigator, R01 DA019478, NIDA: “Tobacco Smoking, Nicotine, and Negative Affect Relief”
8/01/05 - 7/31/10 Co-Investigator, R01 DA09275, NIDA: “Teen Tobacco Use in a Birth Cohort & Prenatal Effects” PI: M. Cornelius, PhD
6/01/05 - 5/31/09 Co-Investigator, SAP #4100027297, State of PA: “Improving Tobacco Dependence Treatment in Underserved Smokers”, PI: C. Lerman Ph.D., U of Penn
9/01/04 - 8/31/09 Principal Investigator, NIH Project 4 of 2 P50-CA-084718-06-10 (TTURC center, U of Penn), NCI: “Improved Human Screening of Cessation Medications”
7/01/03-1/31/09 Co-Investigator, R01 DA16402, NIDA: “Smoking and metabolic complications in adolescent girls” PI: L. Dorn, PhD, U. of Cincinnati
9/30/03-6/30/08 Co-Investigator, R01 DA17555, NIDA: “Pharmacogenetic Investigation of Naltrexone” PI: C. Lerman, PhD, U. of Penn
9/30/02-5/31/08 Principal Investigator, R01 DA 16483, NIDA: “Affect, Context, and Placebo Responses to Nicotine”9/30/04 - 9/30/08 Co-Investigator, R21 DA19269, NIDA: “Extinction in smokers: Renewal and spontaneous recovery”, PI: C. Conklin, PhD
9/30/03-7/31/07 Co-Investigator, R21 DA17582, NIDA: “Personalized cues as factors in smoking relapse” PI: C. Conklin, PhD
2/1/00-11/30/05 Co-Principal Investigator, R01 DA04174-13-17, NIDA: “Bupropion and Weight Control for Smoking Cessation” Co-PI: Marsha Marcus, Ph.D.
9/30/00-8/31/05 Co-Investigator, R01 DA11735-01-05, NIDA: “In Vivo 31P-1H MRSI and MRI Brain Studies of Nicotine” PI: J. Pettegrew, MD
9/30/00-8/31/04 Principal Investigator, R01 DA 12655-01-04, NIDA: “Sex Differences in Nicotine Reinforcement: Human/Animal”
5/1/00-3/31/04 Principal Investigator, R01 DA 05807-11-14, NIDA: “Individual Variation in Nicotine Sensitivity in Humans”
4/1/00-3/31/01 Principal Investigator, NIH Pilot/feasibility project of P50-CA-084718 (TTURC center, Georgetown/U of Penn), NCI: “NRT effect on smoking reinforcement by dopamine genotype”
7/1/97-6/30/02 Principal Investigator, R01 DA 08578-04-08, NIDA: "Discriminative Stimulus Effects of Nicotine in Humans."
2/20/97-1/31/01 Co-Investigator, R01 DA10887-01-04, NIDA: "Smoking, Stress, and Immune Function." PI: Anthony Caggiula, Ph.D.
2/1/95-1/31/00 Principal Investigator, R01 DA 05807-06-10, NIDA: "Chronic and Acute Tolerance to Nicotine in Humans."
9/30/94-8/31/98 Principal Investigator, R01 DA 04174-09-12, NIDA: "Food Intake, Tobacco Withdrawal, and Cessation in Women."
1/1/94-12/31/96 Principal Investigator, R01 DA 08578-01-03, NIDA: "Discriminative Stimulus Effects of Nicotine in Humans."
10/1/93-9/30/94 Principal Investigator, pilot/feasibility project, ONRC "Changes in Substance Use Following Weight (NIDDK) Loss/Food Restriction", provided by NIDDK-supported Obesity/Nutrition Research Center (ONRC) of the University of Pittsburgh.
3/1/92-2/28/94 Principal Investigator, R03 DA 07865-01-02, NIDA: "Acceptability of Nicotine Spray for Smoking Cessation."
8/1/89-7/31/94 Principal Investigator, R01 DA 04174-04-08, NIDA: "Nicotine, Energy Balance, and Prevention of Weight Gain."
4/1/89-3/31/94 Principal Investigator, R01 DA 05807-01-05, NIDA: "Chronic and Acute Tolerance to Nicotine in Humans."
7/1/86-7/31/89 Principal Investigator, R01 DA 04174-01-03, NIDA: "Nicotine, Energy Balance, and Prevention of Weight Gain."