Ken Perkins, from Oberlin Magazine
WPIC, Room E-1335
3811 O’Hara Street
Pittsburgh, PA 15213
Fax: (412) 246-5390

Kenneth A. Perkins PhD

Professor of Psychiatry, Psychology, and Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh

Research Career Summary

Overview: Since 1986, I have been continuously funded by NIH as Principal Investigator on research focused largely on two broad “themes.” One emphasizes translational studies drawing on preclinical findings to examine acute effects of nicotine (and cigarette smoking) that may explain the persistence of tobacco dependence in humans, and the second is aimed at improving clinical treatments for smoking cessation. Several of these NIH-funded projects address both themes, as basic research findings are then often followed by evaluation of their implications for clinical treatment. In the 1980s, my collaborators and I developed and tested a novel nasal spray method for rapid administration of nicotine per se, to mimic the speed of nicotine intake via cigarette smoking but devoid of all the other constituents in tobacco. (This was a full decade before the Nicotrol spray was FDA approved for cessation.)  Using this method, my early projects included the first programmatic lab-based human research on: 1) nicotine and energy balance, to partly determine why smoking lowers body weight (which may help maintain smoking in those with weight concerns); and 2) chronic tolerance to nicotine (tolerance being a classic hallmark of abused drugs) and examination of associations of tolerance with dependence. The first two decades of this effort resulted in my being listed among the most cited authors in tobacco and nicotine research (Byrne & Chapman, 2005, Tobacco Control, 14, 155-160), as well as the most productive faculty in clinical psychology (Stewart et al., 2007, Journal of Clinical Psychology, 63, 1209-1215). Today, over a decade later, I am author or co-author of over 250 publications, most as first author, with a citation index (h) of 68 and nearly 15,000 total citations through 2018. I became a Fellow of APA in 1994, as well as of the Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) and Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco (SRNT), for which I was elected President in 2001.  In addition to this research productivity over the past 30 years, I have also contributed to the missions of the medical school and the Psychology department at the Univ of Pittsburgh by teaching and mentoring graduate students and medical students. Subsequent to the above projects on energy balance and on chronic tolerance to nicotine were four more recent or ongoing projects pioneered by my lab, which will be emphasized below in this career summary.

The first long-standing project described here concerns the discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine, specifically intended to translate the outstanding preclinical research on behavioral discrimination of nicotine to humans. When I began this line of work in the early 1990s, such research could not be done using commercial tobacco cigarettes, as they did not allow for careful control of nicotine dosing due to variable inhalation patterns (i.e. smoking topography). At the time, the only other method of rapid delivery of nicotine in controlled fashion was I.V., not practical for most nicotine discrimination research in humans. After documenting reliable nicotine discrimination behavior in humans, we also demonstrated CNS mediation of these discriminative stimulus effects (possibly for the first time in humans with any drug) and assessed the threshold dose for nicotine discrimination from placebo. Because of recent FDA interest in research that addresses public health policy to set a maximum nicotine content in cigarettes, nicotine thresholds for discrimination and self-administration may greatly inform such policy. Consequently, that research continues in my lab, with the only studies to date on nicotine via smoked tobacco assessing discriminative stimulus effects, as well as linking those effects to reinforcement (using Spectrum research cigarettes engineered to deliver specific nicotine contents). We also extended this research to nicotine discrimination via e-cigarettes.

A second area of human research we initiated was the systematic study of sex differences in sensitivity to the acute reinforcing and related effects of nicotine compared with non-nicotine smoking stimuli. When I began examining potential sex differences in sensitivity to acute nicotine reinforcement in the early 1990s, there was little interest in this specific topic.  The relatively few investigators conducting lab-based smoking research at that time rarely considered sex differences. Yet, when addressed, the prevailing view was that women were more sensitive to nicotine than men, as evidenced by the preference of women for low yield, or “light”, cigarette brands (overlooking the impact of marketing, and lack of awareness then that a brand’s “yield” did not correspond to nicotine delivery). My work in this area from the start proposed the opposite view, that women were less sensitive than men to reinforcing effects of nicotine per se, but more sensitive to the non-nicotine stimuli accompanying smoking behavior. Critical to understanding these differences was disentangling these factors by separate manipulation and control of nicotine dosing and of the non-nicotine smoking factors, which had not been done. I then collaborated with Pitt colleague Tony Caggiula, who had made similar observations in male vs female rodents, to conduct parallel studies on sex differences in sensitivity to these nicotine and non-nicotine factors. Subsequent studies over 20 years in that line of research reliably confirmed these sex differences and moderating factors in cigarettes that carefully controlled exposure to nicotine, as well as a 2008 meta-analysis addressing clinical implications of this work by documenting less cessation efficacy with nicotine vs placebo patch treatment in women relative to men. Aside from this focus on sex differences, I have collaborated with others to conduct clinical trials to develop and test cognitive-behavioral treatment for smoking cessation targeted to women concerned about post-cessation weight gain.

A third area of programmatic human research unique to our lab is examining nicotine’s reinforcement enhancing effects, or its actions in enhancing reinforcement from various non-drug rewards that are independent of nicotine intake. Although nicotine’s reinforcement enhancing effects were demonstrated some time ago in animal models, this effect has only recently been shown in humans in our lab (in 2013; see review of this recent work in Open access link: http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyt.2017.00065/full). Findings indicate that nicotine acutely increases the reinforcing efficacy of non-drug reinforcers perhaps selectively, such as those sensory in nature (audio, visual), but does not increase non-sensory reinforcement (e.g. money), while controlling for non-specific responding (no reward) due to nicotine.  Very recent work suggests differential dose-related increases in enhancement depending on the type of reinforcer available (auditory vs visual). In sum, this work confirms generalizability of nicotine’s reinforcement enhancing effects in preclinical studies to humans, as well as documenting those effects from nicotine administered by non-smoked means of e-cigarettes and NRT medications. Also similar to preclinical research, we found some evidence of reinforcement enhancing effects in bupropion vs. placebo among abstinent smokers, pointing to other drugs that may enhance non-drug reinforcement in humans.

Finally, in addition to the more basic research above, our clinically-oriented projects include developing and validating an efficient procedure for initial screening of novel medications for evidence of efficacy to treat tobacco dependence (i.e. FDA early Phase 2 testing), labeled "Cross-over Evaluation of Addiction Treatment Efficacy" (or the "CrEATE" procedure). The main objective is to inform researchers as to whether or not proceeding to larger and longer (and more costly) randomized clinical trials with those drugs is warranted. That program reliably demonstrated, again perhaps for the first time in systematic fashion, that cessation medications (vs placebo) will only show efficacy on abstinence in those already motivated to quit and not with smokers simply volunteering for participant payment (i.e. those typical of studies acutely testing potential mechanisms of efficacy in medications). Those results illustrate that medications do not “cause” cessation but rather lessen abstinence symptom severity to help motivated quitters persist in staying quit.  As this project continues, the procedure is now being used for its ultimate purpose, to evaluate efficacy for smoking cessation in new compounds, and its applicability for screening novel medications to treat other drug dependence problems is being evaluated. 

For further details, see the links below.

Research and Professional Experience

Education and Training

Undergraduate

1973-1976: Oberlin College, Oberlin OH, B.A. with High Honors in Psychology; Phi Beta Kappa

Graduate

1977-1979: University of Iowa, Iowa City IA, M.A., Clinical Psychology

1979-1982: University of Iowa, Iowa City IA, Ph.D., Clinical Psychology

Post-Graduate

1983-1984: University of Mississippi Medical School, Jackson MS, APA-Approved Clinical Psychology Internship

1984-1986: University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, Post-doctoral Fellow, Cardiovascular Behavioral Medicine Research

Faculty Appointments

1986–1992: Assistant Professor, Departments of Psychiatry, Epidemiology, & Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA

1992–1996: Associate Professor, Departments of Psychiatry, Epidemiology, & Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA

1996–present: Professor, Departments of Psychiatry (primary appointment), Epidemiology, & Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA

Honors

IRG Committees, conference and editorial service

Recent Key Publications

Perkins, K.A., & Karelitz, J.L. (in press) A procedure to standardize puff topography during evaluations of acute tobacco or electronic cigarette exposure. Nicotine and Tobacco Research. doi: 10.1093/ntr/nty261

Perkins, K.A., & Karelitz, J.L. (in press). Acute perceptions of preferred cigarettes when blinded to brand. Tobacco Control.  doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2018-054388.

Perkins, K.A. (in press). FDA policy on setting maximum nicotine content in cigarettes. Nicotine and Tobacco Research. PMID: 29660048  Doi: 10.1093/ntr/nty068.

Perkins, K.A., Herb, T., & Karelitz, J.L. (2019). Discrimination of nicotine content in electronic cigarettes. Addictive Behaviors, 91: 106-111.  DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.05.027 .

Perkins, K.A., Karelitz, J.L., & Kunkle, N. (2018).  Sex differences in subjective responses to moderate versus very low nicotine content cigarettes. Nicotine and Tobacco Research. 20(10): 1258-1264. PMID: 29059330   DOI: 10.1093/ntr/ntx205.

Perkins, K.A., Chengappa, K.N.R., Karelitz, J.L., Boldry, M.C., Michael, V., Herb, T., Gannon, J., Brar, J., Ford, L., Rassnick, S., & Brunzell, D. (2018). Initial cross-over test of a positive allosteric modulator of alpha-7 nicotinic receptors to aid cessation in smokers with or without schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology, 43: 1334-1342.   NIHMSID #921911. doi: 10.1038/npp.2017.292.

Perkins, K.A., Karelitz, J.L., & Kunkle, N. (2018).   Evaluation of menthol per se on acute perceptions and behavioral choice of cigarettes differing in nicotine content. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 32(3): 324-331. PMID: 29468937.  doi: 10.1177/0269881117742660

Perkins, K.A., Karelitz, J.L., & Boldry, M.A. (2017) Nicotine acutely enhances reinforcement from non-drug rewards in humans. Frontiers in Psychiatry (Addictive Disorders section), 8: 65. PMID: 28507522. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2017.00065.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2017.00065.   Open access link: http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyt.2017.00065/full

Perkins, K.A. & Lerman, C. (2014) An efficient early Phase 2 procedure to screen medications for efficacy in smoking cessation. Psychopharmacology, 231: 1-11. DOI: 10.1007/s00213-013-3364-6.

Perkins, K.A. (2013) Procedures for conducting a Crossover Evaluation of Addiction Treatment Efficacy (CREATE) for novel medications in smoking cessation (copyrighted manual). Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh, 2013.

Perkins, K.A., Conklin, C.A., & Levine, M.D. (2008) Cognitive-behavioral therapy for smoking cessation: a practical guide to the most effective treatments (book for practitioners). New York: Routledge, 2008.

Select Other Publications

Perkins, K.A., Kunkle, N., & Karelitz, J.L. (2017) Preliminary test of cigarette nicotine discrimination threshold in non-dependent versus dependent smokers. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 175: 36-41. PMID: 28380366.  doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.01.033 

Perkins, K.A., Karelitz, J.L., & Michael, V.C. (2017) Effects of nicotine versus placebo e-cigarette use on symptom relief during initial tobacco abstinence. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 25(4): 249-254. PMID: 28650184.  DOI: 10.1037/pha0000134.

Perkins, K.A., Kunkle, N., & Karelitz, J.L. (2017) Threshold dose for behavioral discrimination of cigarette nicotine content in menthol vs. non-menthol smokers. Psychopharmacology, 234: 1255-1265. PMID: 28210778.  DOI: 10.1007/s00213-017-4563-3

Perkins, K.A., & Karelitz, J.L. (2015) Sex differences in acute relief of abstinence-induced withdrawal and negative affect due to nicotine content in cigarettes. Nicotine and Tobacco Research 17: 443-448. PMID: 25762754. DOI: 10.1093/ntr/ntu150.

Perkins, K.A., Karelitz, J.L., & Michael, V.C. (2015) Reinforcement enhancing effects of acute nicotine via electronic cigarettes. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 153: 104-108. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.05.041

Perkins, K.A. (2014) Improving efficiency of initial tests for efficacy in smoking cessation drug discovery (editorial for themed Issue). Expert Opinion On Drug Discovery 9: 1259-1264. PMID: 25138487. ISSN: 1746-0441, DOI:10.1517/17460441.2014.951632

Perkins, K.A., & Karelitz, J.L. (2013) Reinforcement enhancing effects of nicotine via smoking. Psychopharmacology, 228: 479-486. DOI: 10.1007/s00213-013-3054-4.

Perkins, K.A., Lerman, C., Karelitz, J.L., Jao, N.C., Chengappa, K.N.R., & Sparks, G.M. (2013) Sensitivity and specificity of a procedure for early human screening of novel smoking cessation medications. Addiction, 108: 1962-1968. DOI: 10.1111/add.12273. NIHMSID #513889.

Perkins, K.A., Karelitz, J.L., Jao, N.C., Gur, R.C., & Lerman, C. (2013) Effects of bupropion on cognitive performance during initial abstinence. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 133: 283-286. PMCID: PMC3786016. DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.05.003.

Perkins, K.A., Karelitz, J.L., & Jao, N.C. (2013) Optimal carbon monoxide criteria to confirm 24-hr smoking abstinence. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 15: 578-582. PMID: 22990219. DOI: 10.1093/ntr/nts205.

Perkins, K.A., & Karelitz, J.L. (2013) Influence of reinforcer magnitude and nicotine amount on smoking’s acute reinforcement enhancing effects. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 133: 167-171. DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.05.016. PMCID: PMC3786025.

Perkins, K.A., Karelitz, J.L., Jao, N.C., & Stratton, E. (2013) Possible reinforcement enhancing effects of bupropion during initial smoking abstinence. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 15: 1141-1145. PMID: 23100457. DOI: 10.1093/ntr/nts224. 

Perkins, K.A. (2012) Subjective reactivity to smoking cues as a predictor of quitting success. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 14: 383-387 (commentary). PMID: 22140145. DOI: 10.1093/ntr/ntr229.

Perkins, K.A. (2011) Nicotine discrimination in humans. Chapter 15 in Glennon RA, Young R (eds), Drug Discrimination: Application to Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Studies. New York: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 463-481. PMID: 19184656, ISBN: 978-0-470-43352-2.

Perkins, K.A., & Lerman, C. (2011) Early human screening of medications to treat drug addiction: Novel paradigms and the relevance of pharmacogenetics. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 89: 460-463. PMID: 21270792, PMCID:PMC3188428; DOI:10.1038/clpt.2010.254.

Perkins, K.A., Karelitz, J.L., Conklin, C.A., Sayette, M.A., & Giedgowd, G.E. (2010) Acute negative affect relief from smoking depends on the affect measure and situation, but not on nicotine. Biological Psychiatry, 67: 707-714. PMID: 20132927

Perkins, K.A. (2010) Pharmacology and behavior: the case of tobacco dependence. In Suls J, Davidson K, Kaplan RM (eds), Handbook of Health Psychology. New York: Guilford Press, pp. 527-543.

Hatsukami, D.K., Perkins, K.A., LeSage, M.G., Ashley, D.L., Henningfield, J.E., Benowitz, N.L., Backinger, C., & Zeller, M. (2010) Nicotine reduction revisited: science and future directions. Tobacco Control 19: 436-445. PMID: 20876072 DOI: 10.1136/tc.7009.035584.

Perkins, K.A., Lerman, C. Fonte, C., Mercincavage, M., Stitzer, M.L., Chengappa, K.R.N., & Jain, A. (2010) Cross-validation of a new procedure for early screening of smoking cessation medications in humans. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 88: 109-114. PMID: 20485335 DOI: 10.1038/clpt.2010.65

Perkins, K.A. (2009) Sex differences in nicotine reinforcement and reward: influences on the persistence of tobacco smoking. In Bevins, R. & Caggiula, A.R. (eds) The Motivational Impact of Nicotine and its Role in Tobacco Use. New York: Springer-Verlag, pp. 143-169. PMID: 19013943

Perkins, K.A. (2009) Discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine in humans. In Henningfield JE, London E, & Pogun, S. (eds) Nicotine Psychopharmacology. New York: Springer-Verlag, pp. 369-400.

Perkins, K.A. (2009) Treatment of nicotine dependence in women. In Brady K., and Greenfield S. (eds), Women and Addiction: A Comprehensive Textbook, New York: Guilford Press, pp. 360-378.

Lerman, C., Perkins, K.A., & Gould, T. (2009) Nicotine dependence endophenotypes in chronic smokers. Chapter 9 in National Cancer Institute Tobacco Control Monograph No. 20, Phenotypes and Endophenotypes: Foundations for Genetic Studies of Nicotine use and Dependence. Bethesda, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute. NIH Publication No. 08-6366, pp. 403-484.

Perkins, K.A. (2009) Does smoking cue-induced craving tell us anything important about nicotine dependence? (invited commentary/review). Addiction 104: 1610-1616. PMID:19426293

Perkins, K.A., Ciccocioppo, M., Conklin, C., Milanak, M., Grottenthaler, A. & Sayette, M. (2008) Mood influences on acute smoking responses are independent of nicotine intake and dose expectancy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 117: 79-93. PMID: 18266487

Perkins, K.A., Lerman, C., Stitzer, M.L., Fonte, C.A., Briski, J.L., Scott, J.A., & Chengappa, K.N.R. (2008) Development of procedures for early screening of smoking cessation medications in humans. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 84: 216-221. PMID: 18388880

Perkins, K.A., & Scott, J. (2008) Sex differences in long-term smoking cessation rates due to nicotine patch. Nicotine and Tobacco Research 10: 1245-1251. PMID: 18629735

Perkins, K.A., Lerman, C., Coddington, S.B., Jetton, C., Karelitz, J.L., Scott, J., & Wilson, A.S. (2008) Initial nicotine sensitivity in humans as a function of impulsivity. Psychopharmacology 200: 529-544. PMID: 18604520

Lerman, C., LeSage, M.G., Perkins, K.A., O’Malley, S.S., Siegel, S.J., Benowitz, N.L., & Corrigall, W.A. (2007) Translational research in medication development for nicotine dependence. Nature Reviews: Drug Discovery 6: 746-762.

Perkins, K.A., Stitzer, M., & Lerman, C. (2006) Medication screening for smoking cessation: a proposal for new methodologies. Psychopharmacology 184: 628-636.

Perkins, K.A., Sayette, M., Conklin, C.A., & Caggiula, A.R. (2003) Placebo effects of tobacco smoking and other nicotine intake. Nicotine and Tobacco Research 5: 695-709.

Perkins, K.A., Broge, M., Gerlach, D., Sanders, M., Grobe, J.E., Cherry, C., & Wilson, A.S. (2002) Acute nicotine reinforcement, but not chronic tolerance, predicts withdrawal and relapse after quitting smoking. Health Psychology 21: 332-339.

Perkins, K.A. (2002) Chronic tolerance to nicotine in humans and its relationship to tobacco dependence. Nicotine and Tobacco Research 4: 405-422.

Perkins, K.A. (2001) Smoking cessation in women: special considerations. CNS Drugs 15: 391-411.

Perkins, K.A., Gerlach, D., Broge, M., Grobe, J.E., Sanders, M., Fonte, C., Vender, J., Cherry, C., & Wilson, A. (2001) Dissociation of nicotine tolerance from tobacco dependence in humans. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 296: 849-856.

Perkins, K.A., Fonte, C., Sanders, M., Meeker, J., & Wilson, A. (2001) Threshold doses for nicotine discrimination in smokers and nonsmokers. Psychopharmacology 155: 163-170.

Perkins, K.A., Marcus, M.D., Levine, M.D., D’Amico, D., Miller, A., Broge, M., Ashcom, J., & Shiffman, S. (2001) Cognitive-behavioral therapy to reduce weight concerns improves smoking cessation outcome in weight-concerned women. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 69: 604-613.

Perkins, K.A., Hickcox, M.E., & Grobe, J.E. (2000) Behavioral economics of smoking. In Bickel, W. & Vuchinich, R. (eds), Reframing health behavior change with behavioral economics. Mahwah NJ: Erlbaum, pp. 265-292.

Perkins, K.A., Levine, M., Marcus, M., Shiffman, S., D’Amico, D., Miller, A., Keins, A., Ashcom, J., & Broge, M. (2000) Tobacco withdrawal in women and menstrual cycle phase. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 68: 176-180.

Perkins, K.A. (1999) Baseline-dependency of nicotine effects: a review. Behavioural Pharmacology 10: 597-615.

Perkins, K.A., Sanders, M., Fonte, C., Wilson, A.S., White, W., Stiller, R., & McNamara, D. (1999) Effects of central and peripheral nicotinic blockade on human nicotine discrimination. Psychopharmacology 142: 158-164.

Perkins, K.A., Donny, E., & Caggiula, A.R. (1999) Sex differences in nicotine effects and self-administration: human and animal evidence. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 1: 301-315.

Perkins, K.A. (1997) Combined effects of nicotine and alcohol on subjective, behavioral, and physiological responses in humans. Addiction Biology 2: 255-267.

Perkins, K.A. (1996) Sex differences in nicotine versus non-nicotine reinforcement as determinants of tobacco smoking. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 4: 166-177.

Kaplan, R.M., Orleans, C.T., Perkins, K.A., & Pierce, J.P. (1995) Marshaling the evidence for greater regulation and control of tobacco products: a call for action. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 17: 3-14.

Perkins, K.A. (1995) Individual variability in response to nicotine. Behavior Genetics 25: 119-132.

Perkins, K.A. (1994) Issues in the prevention of weight gain after smoking cessation. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 16: 46-52.

Perkins, K.A., DiMarco, A., Grobe, J.E., Scierka, A.C., & Stiller, R.L. (1994) Nicotine discrimination in male and female smokers. Psychopharmacology 116: 407-413.

Perkins, K.A., Grobe, J.E., Fonte, C., Goettler, J.L., Caggiula, A.R., Reynolds, W.A., Stiller, R.L., Scierka, A., & Jacob, R.G. (1994) Chronic and acute tolerance to subjective, behavioral, and cardiovascular effects of nicotine in humans. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 270: 628-638.

Perkins, K.A. (1993) Weight gain following smoking cessation. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology61: 768-777. (Abstracted in Clinician's Research Digest, 1994, 12, p. 5)

Perkins, K.A., Grobe, J.E., Stiller, R.L., Fonte, C., & Goettler, J.E. (1992) Nasal spray nicotine replacement suppresses cigarette smoking desire and behavior. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 52: 627-634.

Perkins, K.A. (1992) Metabolic effects of cigarette smoking. Journal of Applied Physiology 72: 401-409.

Perkins, K.A., Epstein, L.H., Stiller, R.L., Fernstrom, M.H., Sexton, J.E., Jacob, R.G., & Solberg, R. (1991) Acute effects of nicotine on hunger and caloric intake in smokers and nonsmokers. Psychopharmacology103: 103-109.

Perkins, K.A., Epstein, L.H., & Pastor, S. (1990) Changes in energy balance following smoking cessation and resumption of smoking in women. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 58: 121-125.

Perkins, K.A., Epstein, L.H., Marks, B.L., Stiller, R.L., & Jacob, R.G. (1989) Effect of nicotine on energy expenditure during light physical activity. New England Journal of Medicine 320: 898-903.

Epstein, L.H., & Perkins, K.A. (1988) Smoking, stress, and coronary heart disease. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 56: 342-349.

Perkins, K.A. (1987) The shortage of cadaver donor organs for transplantation: can psychology help? American Psychologist 42: 921-930.

Perkins, K.A. (1986) Family history of coronary heart disease: Is it an independent risk factor? American Journal of Epidemiology 124: 182-194.

Perkins, K.A., Epstein, L.H., Jennings, J.R., & Stiller, R. (1986) The cardiovascular effects of nicotine during stress. Psychopharmacology 90: 373-378.

Perkins, K.A. (1985) The synergistic effect of smoking and serum cholesterol on coronary heart disease. Health Psychology, 4: 337-360.

NIH Grant Support

Current Grants

7/15/14 – 6/30/19 Principal Investigator, R01 DA035774, NIDA: “Reinforcement-Enhancing Effects of NRT”

4/1/16 – 3/31/21  Co-Investigator, R01 CA206058, NCI: “Behavioral activation for smoking cessation and the prevention of post-cessation weight gain”; PI: J. Audrain-McGovern, Univ of Pennsylvania

9/1/17 – 8/31/19   Co-Investigator, R21 DA045137, NIDA: “Cognitive remediation and transcranial direct current stimulation to aid smokers with schizophrenia”; PI: C. Conklin, Univ of Pittsburgh

Previously completed grants

8/15/13 - 7/31/17 Principal Investigator, R21 DA035968, NIDA: “Threshold Dose for Nicotine Discrimination in Cigarettes”

9/15/12 - 7/31/17 Co-Investigator, R01 DA033080, NIDA: “Behavioral and genetic mechanisms of smoking risk in Individuals with ADHD” PI: S. Kollins, PhD, Duke Univ

8/20/14 – 6/30/17 Co- Principal Investigator, UH3 TR000958, NCATS: “Medication Development of a Novel Therapeutic for Smoking Cessation” (subaward from Virginia Commonwealth Univ).

8/01/09 - 7/31/14 Principal Investigator, Project 3 of P50-CA-143187 (CIRNA center, U of Penn), NCI: “Validating Early Human Screening of Cessation Medications”

7/01/13 – 6/30/14 Co-Investigator, UH2 TR000958, NCATS: “Medication Development of a Novel Therapeutic for Smoking Cessation” PI: D. Brunzell, PhD, Virginia Commonwealth Univ.

7/15/11 - 4/30/13 Principal Investigator, R21 DA031218, NIDA: “Reinforcement-Enhancing Effects of Nicotine”

4/01/08 - 3/31/13 Co-Investigator, R01 DA023646, NIDA: “Self-report and behavioral reactivity to combined smoking cues” PI: C. Conklin, PhD, Univ Pittsburgh

9/15/09 - 8/31/12 Co-Investigator, R21 MH087928, NIMH: “Varenicline treatment for smoking cessation in patients with Bipolar disorder”, PI: R. Chengappa, MD

9/30/07 - 6/30/12 Co-Investigator, R01 DA021608, NIDA: “Addressing Postpartum Mood and Weight Concerns to Sustain Smoking Cessation”, PI: M.D. Levine, Ph.D.

9/15/09 - 8/31/11 Principal Investigator, R03 DA027449, NIDA: “Behavioral Genetics of Mood-Induced Smoking”

7/01/06 - 6/30/11 Co-Investigator, R01 DA020742, NIDA: “Understanding Emerging Patterns of Non-Daily Smoking: Field and Lab Assessments”, PI: S. Shiffman, Ph.D.

9/12/06 - 7/31/10 Principal Investigator, R01 DA019478, NIDA: “Tobacco Smoking, Nicotine, and Negative Affect Relief”

8/01/05 - 7/31/10 Co-Investigator, R01 DA09275, NIDA: “Teen Tobacco Use in a Birth Cohort & Prenatal Effects” PI: M. Cornelius, PhD

6/01/05 - 5/31/09 Co-Investigator, SAP #4100027297, State of PA: “Improving Tobacco Dependence Treatment in Underserved Smokers”, PI: C. Lerman Ph.D., U of Penn

9/01/04 - 8/31/09 Principal Investigator, NIH Project 4 of 2 P50-CA-084718-06-10 (TTURC center, U of Penn), NCI: “Improved Human Screening of Cessation Medications”

7/01/03-1/31/09 Co-Investigator, R01 DA16402, NIDA: “Smoking and metabolic complications in adolescent girls” PI: L. Dorn, PhD, U. of Cincinnati

9/30/03-6/30/08 Co-Investigator, R01 DA17555, NIDA: “Pharmacogenetic Investigation of Naltrexone” PI: C. Lerman, PhD, U. of Penn

9/30/02-5/31/08 Principal Investigator, R01 DA 16483, NIDA: “Affect, Context, and Placebo Responses to Nicotine”9/30/04 - 9/30/08 Co-Investigator, R21 DA19269, NIDA: “Extinction in smokers: Renewal and spontaneous recovery”, PI: C. Conklin, PhD

9/30/03-7/31/07 Co-Investigator, R21 DA17582, NIDA: “Personalized cues as factors in smoking relapse” PI: C. Conklin, PhD

2/1/00-11/30/05 Co-Principal Investigator, R01 DA04174-13-17, NIDA: “Bupropion and Weight Control for Smoking Cessation” Co-PI: Marsha Marcus, Ph.D.

9/30/00-8/31/05 Co-Investigator, R01 DA11735-01-05, NIDA: “In Vivo 31P-1H MRSI and MRI Brain Studies of Nicotine” PI: J. Pettegrew, MD

9/30/00-8/31/04 Principal Investigator, R01 DA 12655-01-04, NIDA: “Sex Differences in Nicotine Reinforcement: Human/Animal”

5/1/00-3/31/04 Principal Investigator, R01 DA 05807-11-14, NIDA: “Individual Variation in Nicotine Sensitivity in Humans”

4/1/00-3/31/01 Principal Investigator, NIH Pilot/feasibility project of P50-CA-084718 (TTURC center, Georgetown/U of Penn), NCI: “NRT effect on smoking reinforcement by dopamine genotype”

7/1/97-6/30/02 Principal Investigator, R01 DA 08578-04-08, NIDA: "Discriminative Stimulus Effects of Nicotine in Humans."

2/20/97-1/31/01 Co-Investigator, R01 DA10887-01-04, NIDA: "Smoking, Stress, and Immune Function." PI: Anthony Caggiula, Ph.D.

2/1/95-1/31/00 Principal Investigator, R01 DA 05807-06-10, NIDA: "Chronic and Acute Tolerance to Nicotine in Humans."

9/30/94-8/31/98 Principal Investigator, R01 DA 04174-09-12, NIDA: "Food Intake, Tobacco Withdrawal, and Cessation in Women."

1/1/94-12/31/96 Principal Investigator, R01 DA 08578-01-03, NIDA: "Discriminative Stimulus Effects of Nicotine in Humans."

10/1/93-9/30/94 Principal Investigator, pilot/feasibility project, ONRC "Changes in Substance Use Following Weight (NIDDK) Loss/Food Restriction", provided by NIDDK-supported Obesity/Nutrition Research Center (ONRC) of the University of Pittsburgh.

3/1/92-2/28/94 Principal Investigator, R03 DA 07865-01-02, NIDA: "Acceptability of Nicotine Spray for Smoking Cessation."

8/1/89-7/31/94 Principal Investigator, R01 DA 04174-04-08, NIDA: "Nicotine, Energy Balance, and Prevention of Weight Gain."

4/1/89-3/31/94 Principal Investigator, R01 DA 05807-01-05, NIDA: "Chronic and Acute Tolerance to Nicotine in Humans."

7/1/86-7/31/89 Principal Investigator, R01 DA 04174-01-03, NIDA: "Nicotine, Energy Balance, and Prevention of Weight Gain."